Africa remains

Planet Earth In The Future

 

 

– https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uQ91AxUqHck

 

A natural disaster occurs – first massive seismic activity…

 

 

Cape Town 

 

189616_1440117182508_1820412185_789590_933292_n.jpg

Cape Town lies very close to the Milnerton Fault line. This Fault line has caused serious earthquakes before (explained in seismic history) and also has the potential to cause intense earthquakes in the future.

Cape Town lies fairly central in the African plate and so, doesn’t experience much tectonic activity.  The African plate is moving away from the Antartic plate in an oceanic divergent plate boundary.

 

tectonic.gif

 

Seismic History

The most historically severe earthquake that occurred in South Africa was in the northeast of Cape Town on September 29th, 1969. The earthquake had a magnitude of 6.3 and took 12 lives and resulted in extensive damage in local towns. Another 6.3 magnitude earthquake occurred closer (10 km) to Cape Town on September 4th, 1809 at the Milnerton Fault (where the Cape Town stadium now is). 

AON Benfield did a study in 2010 to assess the risk of future earthquakes in Cape Town. They used data from historical earthquakes around the area between 1620 and 2006 and calculated the average return periods for magnitudes between 3.0 and 6.87, the results of which are shown in Figure 1. The figure below shows that (for example) an earthquake with a magnitude of 6.0 and larger would be expected to occur every 300 years. The predicted upper limit earthquake for the Cape Town area is 6.87.

– http://capetowngeoscape.wordpress.com/about/

Then – volcanic eruptions leading to *the african tectonic plate being extensively covered with *flood basalt, i.e. the ocean floor gets lifted.

 

File:World geologic provinces.jpg

 

(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geologic_province)

So what happens…

It all began with the  Marikana miners’ strike:

The Marikana miners’ strike or Lonmin strike was a wildcat strike at a mine owned by Lonmin in the Marikana area, close to Rustenburg, South Africa in 2012. The event garnered international attention following a series of violent incidents between the South African Police Service, Lonmin security, the leadership of the National Union of Mineworkers (NUM) and strikers themselves, which resulted in the deaths of 44 people, the majority of whom were striking mineworkers killed on 16 August. At least 78 additional workers were also injured on 16 August. The total number of injuries during the strike remains unknown. In addition to the Lonmin strikers, there has been a wave of wildcat strikes across the South African mining sector.[4] The Strike is considered a seminal event in modern South African history, and was followed by similar strikes at other mines across South Africa,[17][18] events which collectively made 2012 the most protest-filled year in the country since the end of apartheid.[19] 

and then it all continues into 2014…

 

 

South African miners’ strike shakes big firms

By  on June 20, 2014

Since Jan. 23, the Association of Mineworkers and Construction Union has led 70,000 of its members in a strike in the platinum industry in South Africa, primarily over wages. The union is demanding a minimum wage for miners of 12,500 rand (US $ 1,163) per month.

Mine bosses are eager to have the situation in Rustenburg in the North West province return to normalcy after two years of militant, divisive labor struggles. In August 2012 the situation erupted with a wildcat strike over wages at Lonmin’s mine in the Marikana area. During that work stoppage, at least 10 people were initially killed due to actions by security forces.

Then, on Aug. 16, 2012, North West provincial police opened fire on striking miners, killing 34 and wounding many others. Dozens of other workers were taken into custody, but a national outcry led to their release.

Another factor at play at Lonmin was the riivalry between AMCU organizers and the National Union of Mineworkers, which is affiliated with the Congress of South African Trade Unions, the country’s largest labor federation. Over the last two years, AMCU has won the membership of a majority of platinum miners in the North West. NUM is now a minority union.

Strike’s impact on the economy

Establishment economic publications maintain that the crisis has caused losses for the platinum mining companies, and is impacting the overall economy, which still relies heavily on the extractive industries for export. South Africa contains 80 percent of the world’s supply of platinum, an essential mineral for the global automotive and transport industries.

Anglo American Platinum, Impala and Lonmin, the three leading firms, issued a joint statement, saying, “in principle” agreements had been reached with the AMCU leadership “in respect of wages and conditions of employment.” Although no details were released on the potential settlement’s terms, the South African government has been attempting to mediate an end to the strike.

When Malema was ANC Youth League president, he openly advocated nationalization of the country’s mining and agricultural industries. In the recent election campaign, the EFF worked in the province to obtain the votes of those who have criticized the ANC government for not moving fast enough on nationalization and land redistribution.

It should be noted that in recent months, the West African state of Nigeria has been designated the largest economy on the continent, having outperformed the Republic of South Africa, previously considered the region’s powerhouse. Nonetheless, both nations still suffer from 25 percent or higher unemployment rates, with stark class divisions that have prompted industrial actions and other forms of struggle.

The working classes of both countries have been hit hard by the ravages of capitalist globalization and the ongoing economic crisis. They have the power to set back the corporate exploiters — and they have the support of the world’s workers and oppressed in initiating militant actions to stand up for their rights.

 

– http://www.workers.org/articles/2014/06/20/south-african-miners-strike-shakes-big-firms/

 

What this incident shows clearly is the class character of the state. When I was in South Africa some years ago, I remember having a lot of arguments with members of the SACP who assured me that the cops were now different, that this was no longer apartheid, that the cops served an allegedly progressive government, that many of them had even fought in the liberation forces of the ANC against apartheid. We had big arguments about this.

The massacre demonstrated yet again that, in fact, the state, which is based on armed bodies of men (with the police, army, courts, etc. at its core), exists as an organ of repression of one class over another. I gather you have read some of Lenin’s The State and Revolution, if you’ve been participating in this class series. This was a real demonstration that the black and white cops who carried out this massacre are the bourgeoisie’s thugs just as they were under the apartheid regime.

Indeed, that’s what has started to happen. The strike at this particular platinum mine spread to other platinum mines, and then gold mines and chrome mines, and at least one iron ore mine, and also to other sections of the country. Currently there is a big, hard-fought strike in the Western Cape, another strike that is being waged by probably the most oppressed section of the working class in South Africa, the farm workers. In fact, only about 5 percent of these people have ever been organized into unions. But they are on strike today. In total there were some 100,000 mineworkers who were on strike at one time or another when these strikes were going on. The economy lost something like 10 billion rand, which is a little over a billion American dollars. In retaliation, the companies dismissed, or rather attempted to dismiss, thousands of miners from their jobs. Numerous miners are still facing charges.

 

 

– http://www.icl-fi.org/english/wv/1016/safrica.html

– http://www.internationalist.org/southafricaminemassacre1208.html

After 2014 the strikes spread throughout the world, alas the mining industry collapsed worldwide – the result: Oil became the most firecely sought after commodity for that what is left for the now dying capitalist empire.

 

“Oil is running short. No matter of whether there are indeed hard facts for it or if it is rather the result of some „special interests“ of certain market players, from a viewpoint of billions of consumers of oil, be it energy or every day consumer goods”

-http://www.climateprediction.eu/cc/Main/Entries/2012/9/10_Prediction_Scenarios__World_oil_price%2C_consumption%2C_production_(2).html

They go to drastic measures to insure themselves economic consistency – fracking goes big and global with the result that the natural environment depletes faster than ever before – global warming takes full effect and even more so fracking devestates that which is left of the earth’s natural resources completely…

Fracking creates sinkholes (sinks large parts of America etc.);

– http://www.isciencetimes.com/articles/6368/20131121/door-to-hell-video-fire-derweze-turkmenistan.htm

– http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2508652/Louisiana-sinkhole-size-20-football-pitches-burst-flames.html

Damages worlds aquifiers (underground water resources);

“It is becoming increasingly clear that the unconventional gas boom is happening too fast, too recklessly and with insufficient concern for the potential cumulative impacts on our most critical resources – clean air, safe drinking water and a stable climate.” – http://www.desmogblog.com/fracking-the-future/

– http://frackedagain.blogspot.com/2010/12/fracking-hell.html

Groundwater is a life-sustaining resource that supplies water to billions of people, plays a central part in irrigated agriculture and influences the health of many ecosystems12. Most assessments of global water resources have focused on surface water3456, but unsustainable depletion of groundwater has recently been documented on both regional78 and global scales91011.

– http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v488/n7410/full/nature11295.html

aquifers continue to decline and as massive reservoirs fall out of favor due to costs and evaporative losses.” 

-http://ensia.com/features/groundwater-wake-up/

And causes earthquakes.

And at last there can always be an asteroid that sinks the rest of the non-African land masses…

THE  DESTRUCTION  OF  THE  CITY  OF  AKKAD  BY  A  COSMIC

ASTEROID  IMPACT  AND  THE  LINK

TO  GLOBAL  CLIMATE  CHANGE

“Those who study the past, has the unique ability to foresee the future, – says Mr. Frahm. – What will happen to the city if the government falls? What will be engaged citizens after the collapse of the infrastructure? This is where archeology can help to improve the future. ”

artempiresbabel.jpg

“The K8538 is the world’s first scientific documentation on approach and terrestrial impact of a large comet on Earth. Observations were made on top of an astronomical tower, located 100 km close to the impact site. The report is presented in form of a sequence of eight pictures, explaining the comet’s first astronomical sighting, the appearance of comet tail and coma, the growing comet size, the comet flight across the sky and finally, its visible impact beyond the horizon, i.e. the impact flash lighting of the sky and the subsequent elevation of ash plumes, glowing beyond the horizon, spreading North and West. The impact itself is not described as a blast pressure wave but rather as an ash and dust tempest, rising out of mud sediments from the Tigris and Euphrates river delta, where the hot comet found its burial. The astronomical observer carried out trigonometrical measurements to record the flight path in the sky, flying distances and flying times. The observer started his measurements as soon as the comet showed its spectacular size, coma and tail, which convinced the observer, that an extraordinary celestial event was about to take place. The comet impact is responsible for a 300 year long drop in global temperatures combined with lasting mega-droughts, which led to the collapse of various ancient civilisations around the world.

– http://www.climateprediction.eu/cc/Main/Entries/2013/5/15_Identification_of_an_asteroid_impact_-_The_4.2_kYear_event.html

“The   Empire   of   Akkad   has   instantly   perished.   Only  title  claims  from  unconfirmed  locations,  further   up  North  in  Mesopotamia,  remained:  The  Akkadian   king   title  itself   was  aEractive:  “King   of   Kings”  or   “King  of  the  4  Quarters  of  the  Universe”.  The  city  of   Akkad,  however,  still  remains,  undiscovered,  under   clay  cover,  now,  for  over  4,200  years. The  tale  of  burying  2  towns  after  blasphemy  and   sacrilege,  as  God ́s  consequential  punishment  of   evildoers,  was  preserved  over  millennia  as  biblical   story   of   Sodom   and   Gomorrah.   The   tale   sounds   identical   to   the   4.2   kiloyear   impact   event.   This   proposal   is   put   forward   by   impact   specialist   Bruce   Masse  [23]

The   cosmic   impact   initiated   the   Z-­‐‑shaped   impact   footprint   with   an   immediately   ensuing   cooling   and   aridification   period.   GISP2   shows   a    rapid   cooling   at   higher,   Northern   latitudes   on   the   globe ́s   NH,   which   is   simultaneously   accompanied   by   severe   aridification   in   lower   global   latitudes,   as   in   Mediterranean   countries,   Egypt  and  Mesopotamia.  The   drought  in   Northern   Mesopotamia,   following   the   4.2   kiloyear   cosmic   impact,   wiped   out   rain   depending   dry-­‐‑farming   seElements.   Southern   Mesopotamia,   with   its   river   irrigation   agriculture,  did   not   suffer  by   the  drought,  but   suffered   by   the   direct   asteroid   hit.   For   this   reason,   anarchy   and   social   chaos   persisted   for   more  than  30  years  afterwards.

The   impact  occurred  late   in  the   evening,  but  still  in   daylight.   As   next,   witnesses   saw   an   enormous   intense  sky  lightening  and  could  hear  the  impact   sound   [8],   a   massive   heat   wave   propagated   [9]   and   all  bolides  disappeared  deep  in  soft  river  delta   sediments.

From  this  moment  on,  the  cooling  down  process   of   bolides,  stuck  deep  in  sediments  commenced  and   continued,  sustained  by   inflowing   Gulf  waters  into   the   craters:   The   water   and   the   mud   around   all   bolides  heated  tremendously  and  rose  as  giant  dark   mud  plumes  high  in  the  air.  The  plume  formation   above  all  craters  did  not  abate,  as  additional  Gulf   waters  poured  into  impact  craters,  thus  loosening   and  supplying  more  mud.  The  mud  particles  were   lifted  into  the  air  by  the  ultra-­‐‑hot  steam.  In  the   atmosphere,   under   steam   participation,   mud   particles   agglomerated   to   hail-­‐‑sized   pebbles,   described   as   “pellets”   [10],   which   rained   down,   glowing   visibly,  miles  away,  to  the  ground   [9,  lines   179-­‐‑187]:  “[…]  a  fiery  glow  burns  with  the  raging   storm  […]“  and  [11,  lines  79-­‐‑92]:  ”the  dark  time  was   roasted  by  hail-­‐‑storms  {of  pebbles}  and  flames”  and   on   the   ground   [9,   lines   192-­‐‑196]:   “the   scorching   potsherds    made    the    dust   glow    […]”.    The    cooling   time  of  bolides  took  24  hours,  i.e.  one  night  and  the   following  daytime  [8].  On  noon  next  day,  the  sun   was  recognisable  through  the  dust  haze  again.  Mud   plumes  over  impact  sites  were   ́cooked ́,  sterilised,   without   biological   micro-­‐‑life,   and   contained   much   sea  salt  from  Gulf  waters.  The  mud  plumes  could   not  lift  larger  diameter  sediments,  such  as  stones  and   gravel   high   enough   into   the   air.   Those   heavier   sediments    rose    somewhat,    like    a    fluidized   bed   in   combustion  technology,  and  continued  to  fall  back   into  the  crater,  thus  forming  pebbly  steam  cones  in   the  ground  above  stuck  bolides,  from  where  fine  clay   fractions  continuously  steamed  out  due  to  inflowing   Gulf  waters.

A   homogenous   mud   clay   layer   covered   the   impact   area  within  24   hours,  towns,  villages,  fields,   rivers,   irrigation   channels,    the    whole    countryside.   The  greater  the  layer  thickness,  the  closer  to  the   impact   site.   This   burying   of   the   entire   country   was   a   supernatural  event  for  all  Sumerian  inhabitants,  as  a   message  and  punishment  by  gods,  as  historical  “City   Lament”  tablets  prove.

May   that   storm,    like    rain   pouring   down   from   heaven,   never  recur  […]”.

The   most   important   impact   account   is   the   “Lament   for   Urim”   [9]

Details  of  the  storm:  “In  front  of  the  storm,  heat   blazes”,   “Enlil   {storm   god}   hurled   flames”,   “in   the   night,  he  redoubled  the  South  wind  […]”.  “My  house   was  pushed  over  on  its  side  like  a  garden  fence”,   ”the  {mud}  storm  covered  Urim  like  a  garment,  {the   mud   pebbles}   spread   over   it   like   a   linen”,   ”the   swamp   {mud   cover}   accumulated   in   the   city   has   swallowed  my  possessions  […]  like  a  flood  storm  it   completely  destroyed  the  city”.  The  storm  was  over,   the  following  day,  with  “the  city  reduced  to  ruin   mounds”,  “corpses  were  piled”,  ”possessions  were   scaEered   about   […]”,   the   river   bed   was   dry,   filled   with   “dust”   mud;   [9,   lines   265-­‐‑274]   to   obtain   drinking   water,   people   “dug   foxholes   there”   because,  in  the  river  bed  […]  ”in  its  midst,  no  flowing   water  is  carried  […]”

The  second  account  of  the  impact  is  given  in  the   Epic   of   Gilgamesh   [8].   This   account   was   made   observing  from  a  different  town,  in  larger  distance,   which  the  heat  wave  did  not  reach,  but  from  there   the  bolide  smoke  trails  were  visible  in  the  air:  “And   seven  Judges  of  Hell,  the  Anunnaki,  raised  their   torches,  lightening  the  land  with  their  livid  flames   […]”   {Intense    light   in   the    sky   and   7   smoke    trails,   visible    to   the    spectator},   “[…]   A   stupor   of   despair   went  to  heaven,  when  the  god  of  the  storm  turned   daylight  into  darkness,  when  he  smashed  the  land   like  a  cup  […]”  {the  impact  sound  and  dust  plumes   soared  up}  “[…]  One  whole  day  the  tempest  raged,   gathering  fury  as  it  went,  it  poured  over  the  people   like  tides  of   baEle  […]”   {mud  pebbles  rained   down   from  above,  as  in  ancient  baEles:  arrows  and  stones}   […]”  […]  a  man  could  not  see  his  brother,  nor  the   people  be  seen  from  heaven  […]”  ,  ”even  the  gods   were  terrified  at  this  flood,  they  fled  to  the  highest   heaven,  the  firmament  of  Anu  […]”  {people  tried  to   avoid   being   buried   under   collapsing   roofs,   leaving   their  houses,  trying  to  get  to  higher  ground,  staying   on  top  of  the  mud  layer}  […]  they  crouched  against   the  walls,  covering  like  curs  […]”  {people  seeking   cover  from  the  bombardment}.

More  details  provides  a  further  account  [11,  lines   69-­‐‑92]:  “[…]  people,  […]  breathed  only  with  difficulty   […]”.  The  heat  blaze  at  night  “roasted  the  dark  time   by   hail-­‐‑stones   and   flames   […]   the   storm   was   a   harrowing  coming  from  above,  the  city  was  struck   by  a  hoe  […]”

The   falling   mud   agglomerates   or   pellets   are   described  as  “hail-­‐‑stones”.  This  term  characterises   very  well  the  downpouring  hail-­‐‑grain  sized,  hard,   hot  and  round  mud  pebbles  or  mud  pellets,  heating   both  air  and  land  surface.

Another  City  Lament  for  the  town  of  Eridu  [14,   lines  8-­‐‑10]  reports:  “The  roaring  storm  […]  covered   Eridug  like  a  cloak,  was  spread  over  it  like  a  sheet   […]”  Eridu  suffered  the  same  fate  as  more  Sumerian   towns.

The  fifth  account  is  the  “Song  of  Ullikummi”,  a   mystical   description   of   a   meteor   impact   and   a   perished  city  [7],  belonging  to  this  historical  age  and   event  location.  In  this  description,  the  Imperial  town   of  Akkad  is  eradicated:

The  impact   related   content   deals  with  an  evil   god   who   spoEed   a   great   rock   in   a   water   pond,   turned  it  as  helper  into  a  supernatural  rock  monster,   lifted  the  monster  up  towards  the  sky.  The  monster   shape  in  the  sky  resembled  a  spear  point   “Ullikummi,  like  a  spear   point   he  sprang”,  was   visible  from  Earth:  The  monster  {comet  trail}  grew  in   length  for  15  days.  The  rock  monster  in  the  sky  was   ordered  to  wipe  out  “the  beloved  town  of  Kummiya   of  the  sky-­‐‑god”  -­‐‑  and  the  evil  god  was  set  to  “take   Kummiya,  the  dear  town,  temple  and  dwelling  […]”   The  struggle  starts:  “the  sky  god  sprang  up  on  his   cart  […]  and  went  with  thunder  down  to  the  sea  and   fought  him,  the  sky  god  fought  the  {meteorite}  stone   […]”,  in  the  air,  while  it  was  raining  and  thundering.   The  impact  produced  mud  clouds:  “The  Sun  god   turned   [his   face]   and   from   his   anger   his   [shine,   appearance]  became  altered”.  The  location  was  at  the   Persian  Gulf:  “the  God  Kumarbi  set  out  from  the   town  of  Urkish  and  to  the  Cold  Pond  he  came”  {the   Persian  Gulf,  its  waters  colder  than  inland  ponds}.   He  reached  the  city  “Kummiya”  at  the  Cold  Pond   {Akkad  as  a  port  city},  The  rock  monster  fell  from   the  sky  and  Kummiya  was  destroyed.

BeEer  details  for  the  destruction  of  Akkad  can  be   found  in  the  “Curse  of  Agade”  [15]:

An  assembly  of  gods  cursed  the  town  of  Akkad,   and   ordered   the   storm   god   Enlil,   to   destroy   this   town;  and  “Enlil,  the  roaring  storm,that  subjugates   the   entire   land,   the   rising  deluge   that  cannot  be   confronted,   was   considering   what   should   be   destroyed   […]”   [15,   lines   149-­‐‑179].   Enlil   went   into   action:  “The  life  of  Agades  sanctuary   {Akkad}   was   brought  to  an  end,  as  if  it  had  been  the  life  of  a  tiny   carp   in   deep   waters”   {an   end   through   deep   inundation,   not   by   blowing   wind}.   The   mud   downpour   was   enormous,   reaching   a   layer   level   higher  than  city   gates:  ”The  doors  of  the  city  gates   were   covered   with   mud   […]”   [lines   149-­‐‑175]   […]   inundated  and  no  more  visible,  taking  into  account   that  Akkad  was  fortified  “with  portals  of  city  gates”   and  a  high  “city  wall  […]  like  a  mountain,  reached   the  heavens”.  [lines  40-­‐‑56]  .  We  can  estimate  the  mud   layer  thickness  to  be  of  at  least  20  meters..

The  cosmic  impact  affected  3  cities  most:  Akkad,   Lagash  and  Ur.  Other  Mesopotamian  cities,  further   away  from  the  impact  site,  were  covered  to  a  lesser   extent.

The    city   of   Akkad   was    instantly   and   entirely   buried,  being  in  closest  distance  to  the  major  Umm-­‐‑ al-­‐‑Binni  impact  site.  Its  ruling  dynasty  of  Shar-­‐‑kali-­‐‑ Sharri  could  not  escape.  The  same  fate  suffered  the   second  seaport  town  of  Lagash.  The  third  town,  Ur,   was  only  covered  to  the  roof  tops,  located  in  greater   distance

2.5.  Impact  aftermath  and  generation-­‐‑long  social  anarchy

2.5.1.  Political  situation The  impact  of  2193  BC  buried  the  imperial  city  of

Akkad  entirely,  because  of  its  location,  next  to  the   major   Umm-­‐‑al-­‐‑Binni   impact   site.   The   Akkadian   dynasty  under  king  Shar-­‐‑kali-­‐‑Sharri  perished  and   none   or   few   of   city   dwellers   survived.   The   Sumerians  had  the  custom  at  this  time  to  count  years   with  specific  year  names:  Years  before  2193  BC  were   military  victory  years  of  the  dynastic  king  over  Elam,   Zahara  and  Gutium.  But,  regarding  the  impact  year,   the  name  is  different:  “The  year,  in  which  Enlil  {the   storm   god,   acted}   […]   onto   Shar-­‐‑kali-­‐‑sharri”   [20].   From  this  time  on,  Shar-­‐‑kali-­‐‑sharri  ceased  to  be  year   name  provider.

As  a  second  town,  the  city  of  Lagash  was  buried.   According  to  the  Lagash  lament:  “After  the  flood   {mud}   has   swept   over   and   brought   about   the   destruction  […]  the  seed  of  mankind  was  preserved   [21]:  People  survived,  but  the  Euphrates  river  bed   was  obstructed   by   the  mudfall  and   did   not   reach   Lagash:  “In  those  days,  the  water  of  Lagash  was  held   back  […]  there  was  no  water  to  irrigate  […]”.

The   Lagash   population   restored   the   up-­‐‑river   town   of   Girsu   at   first,   25   km   NW,   and   founded   a   Neo-­‐‑Sumerian  kingdom  there,  after  40  years  of  land   restoration.

The   third   town,   Ur,   received   less   mud,   only   reaching  roof  tops.

The  first  people  to  perish  by  the  event  were  those   who  happened  to  be  in  open  air,  geEing  caught  by   the   heat   wave,   released   by   the   impacts:   [9,   lines   186-­‐‑187]  “[…]  in  front  of  the  storm,  heat  blazes  […]   and  in  [22]:  “scorched  the  body  of   the  people  […]”.   Afterwards,   [9,   lines   216-­‐‑217]:   “in   all   streets   […]   corpses  were  piled  […]  corpses,  like  fat  left  in  the   Sun,  melted  away  […]”  {by  the  heat  of  hot  pellets  on   the  ground}.

The   Urians   blamed   the   disaster   onto   the   Akkadian   rulers   in   town   for   sacrilege,   because   Akkadians,   shortly   before,   destroyed   a   holy   Sumerian  temple  site  in  Nippur:  “The  good  house   {temple  of  Enlil}  of  the  untouchable  mountain  […]   was  entirely  devoured  by  large  axes.  The  people  of   Cimacki  {the  Akkadians},  and  Elam,  the  destroyers,   counted  its  worth  as  only  30  shekels.  They  broke  up   the  good  house  with  pickaxes”.  This  crime  against  a   major  Sumerian  temple  incited  the  Urians  to  murder   all  Akkadians  in  town  [9,lines  218-­‐‑240]:  “men  slain   by  the  axe  […]”,  “men  struck  down  with  the  spear”,   “he  who  stood  up  to  the  weapon  was  crushed  with   the  weapon  […]  he  who  ran  away  was  overwhelmed   […]  they  lay  in  their  own  blood  […]”.  The  Akkadian   government   in   town   was    eliminated:   “the    Lands    ́Judgement  disappeared  […]  the  Land ́s  Counsel  was   swallowed   by   the   swamp   [mud]”   […]   ”it ́s   tax   collector   is   gone   […]”   Murdering   of   Akkadians   spread  to  other  Sumerian  towns  [15,  lines  190  -­‐‑244]:   “The  gods  cursed  Agade  severely:  City,  you  pounced   on  E-­‐‑kur“,  and  in  revenge:  “Alas  for  the  E-­‐‑kur!”  […]   ”heads  were  piled  up.  {as  pyramids  of  heads}  […]   honest  people  were  confounded  with  traitors  […]  the   blood  of  traitors  ran  upon  the  blood  of  honest  men.”   Akkadian   dead   were   stripped   of   their   clothing   and   not   prepared   for   proper   burial   [15,    lines    218-­‐‑229]:   “heads  of  the  men  slain  by  the  axe  were  not  covered   by  the  cloth  […]  men,  finished  off  with  the  baEle   mace  were  not  bandaged  {wrapped  in  burial  cloth}   […]  they  lay  in  their  own  blood  as  if  in  the  place   where  their  mothers  had  laboured  […]”  Anarchy  and   violence  broke  out,  no  Akkadian  official  survived.

The   town   Girsu,   at   the   Euphrates   river,   recovered  first,  after  40  years,  under  the  governors   Ur-­‐‑Baba   and   Gudea   of   Lagash.   There,   new

government   buildings   were   constructed.   The   restoration  of  Lagash  town  focussed  on  their  pre-­‐‑ Akkadian,   old   Sumerian   temples.   Soon,   the   Girsu   rule  extended  over  the  town  of  Ur,  where  town   restoration  took  longer.  Forty  years  later,  the  town  of   Ur  was  capable  of  taking  over  Sumerian  rule  from   Girsu.   From   2112   BC   on,   the   Neo-­‐‑Sumerian   Kingdom  continued  out  of  Ur,  as  Ur  III  dynasty.

A   very   important   documentary   observation   is   that  from  2193  BC  impact  on,  all  historical  records  on   Akkad   abruptly   and   entirely   cease:   All   Akkadian   rule   in   Sumeria,   the   existence   of   Akkad   town,   Akkadian   economic   and   suzerainty   relations,   tax   and  trade  records,  construction  activities…even  the   Akkadian  language  was  discontinued  and  replaced   in  wriEen  tablets  by  the  previously  used  Sumerian   language.

The  last  ruler  of  Lagash  in  2193  BC  was  Puzur-­‐‑ Mama,   under   Akkadian   suzerainty   and   credentials   as  {God}:  “sharrum”  or  “lugal”  .  After  the  event,  he,   certainly,  suffered  the  fate  of  Akkadians  in  other   Sumerian  towns  and  the  ruling  title  in  Girsu  and   Lagash,  after  the  end  of  the  social  chaos,  changed  to   “ensi”,  governor,  in  Sumerian.

The   Empire   of   Akkad   has   instantly   perished.   Only  title  claims  from  unconfirmed  locations,  further   up  North  in  Mesopotamia,  remained:  The  Akkadian   king   title  itself   was  aEractive:  “King   of   Kings”  or   “King  of  the  4  Quarters  of  the  Universe”.  The  city  of   Akkad,  however,  still  remains,  undiscovered,  under   clay  cover,  now,  for  over  4,200  years.  The  location  of   Akkad  town  as  Gulf  port  city  was  unfortunate  [11,   lines  22-­‐‑68]:  “Enki  has  altered  the  course  of  the  Tigris   and  Euphrates  […],  Enki  blocked  the  water  of  the   Tigris   and   Euphrates   […]”   Later   on,   river   works   restored   an   continuing   Euphrates   flow   to   Lagash   and  Ur.  The  Tigris  received  the  largest  Umm-­‐‑al-­‐‑Binni   impact,   shifted   laterally,   which   ended   Akkads   favourite  sea  port  position  as  capital  location  at  the   mouth  of  the  Tigris  river,  reason  to  abandon  this  site   instead  of  renewed  human  seElement.

The  aftermath  of  the  cosmic  impact  was  political   anarchy,   social   chaos,   inflation,   starvation,   emigration.   At   the   same   time,   an   absence   of   authority  was  an  invitation  to  Sumerian  neighbours, ready  to  take  advantage  of  the  chaotic  situation.

The  generation  lasting  damage  was  twofold:

At  first:  The  immense  clay  layer,  dumped  onto   the  countryside,  covered  all  rivers  in  South  Sumer       [11,   lines   58-­‐‑68]:   “Enki   blocked   the    water   in   the   Tigris  and  Euphrates  […]  its  river  bed  was  empty,  no   water  flowed  […]”  The  entire  agricultural  irrigation   system,  channels  and  levees,  which  was  dug  and   constructed   over   centuries   worth   of   work   of   foregoing  generations  disappeared:  “[…]  gone  were   the  orchards   and   the  cultivated   land   […]   hunger   spread  […]”[9].  A  list  of  rulers  and  the  names  of  the   irrigation  channels  dug  under  their  reigns  is  given  in   [21]  all  of  them  gone  with  the  impact.  The  look  of  the   countryside   seemed   [15,   lines   170-­‐‑175]   “as   if   it   had   been   before    the    time,    when   cities    were    built”   and   irrigation  cultivation  just  started.

The   second,   more   important  aspect  of  the   destruction   of   irrigated   fields    was    the    mud ́s    high   sea  salt  content,  making  the  river  water  unsuitable   for  irrigation:  After  several  flushes,  plants  would  die   off   [15,  lines  270-­‐‑271]:  “may   brackish  water   flow  in   the  river  where  freshwater  flowed  for  you  […]  and  on   that   very   day,  so  it   was!  […]   and  Agades  flowing   fresh   water   flowed   as   brackish   water.”   This   terminated   the   irrigation   agriculture:   [15,   lines   170-­‐‑175]:  “arable  tracts  yielded   no  grain,  irrigated   orchards  yielded  no  syrup  nor  wine”  The  freshwater   fishes  {carp}  died  in  brackish  water:  “the  inundated   tracts  yielded  no  fish”  […]  Furthermore,  the  bolide ́s   heat   “cooked”   and   sterilised   the    soil,   burned   all   organic  maEer,  producing   infertile  soil.  This  soil  is   described   as   biologically   “lifeless”:   “Not   even   earthworms  could  live  in  it”  [18].  Additionally,  the   aridification   after   the    impact   date    set   in   and   the   ensuing  drought  lowered  the  river  water  level  by   1.50  m.

The   population   was   discouraged   from   agriculture  with  high  salt  levels  in  irrigation  waters   [21]:    “{God   Acnan}   did   not   make    barley   grow,    […]   furrows  were  not  opened,  they  bore  no  yield,  the   high  plain  was  not  tilled,  it  bore  no  yield”.  People suffered   severe  starvation   and   were  discouraged:

“{men}  did  not  do  any  work  […]  became  smaller  and  smaller ”.

But  there  was  still  plant  growth  of  salt  resistant

weeds  and  bushes  [9,  lines  274-­‐‑368]:  “my  fields,  […]   have  grown  tangled  weeds  […]  and  thornbushes  […]   the  Teme  weed  grows  in  the  middle  of  waterways,   which   were    once    suitable    for   barges    […]   and   mountain  thornbushes  grow  on  your  roads,  which   have   been   constructed   for   wagons”   [15,   lines   256-­‐‑271]:  “may  grass  of  mourning  grow  on  your   highways   […]   and   on   canal   bank   tow-­‐‑paths”   Surviving  people  were  deprived  of  their  irrigation   agriculture  and  had  to  live  on  domestic  animals  and   gardening  with  collected  rainwater  from  roofs  [15]:   “people  made  gardens  grow  within  cities  and  not   […]  on  the  wide  plains  outside”.

2.5.3.  Neighbouring  peoples  taking  advantage  of  the   Sumerian  disaster

People  from  the  North:

As   salt   resistant   weeds   proliferated   on   previous   irrigation  fields  and  Sumerian  authorities  continued   to  be  absent,  nomadic  tribes  from  the  mountains  in   the   North   migrated   South   into   Sumerian   lands.   Those  tribes  were  no  military  troops,  but  groups  of   people  seEling  with  tents  and  animal  herds  between   Sumerian   towns.   The  Sumerians,   describing   those   Gutians   [15,   lines   149-­‐‑175]   as   “with   human   intelligence,   but   canine   feelings   […]   and   monkey   features  […]{they  stole  and}  […]  drove  the  goats  out   of  their  folds,  they  drove  the  cows  out  of  their  pens   […]  brigands  occupied  the  highways  […]  They,  like   small   birds,   swooped   on   the   ground   in   great   flocks   […]”  Some  nomad  chieftains  imitated  Sumerian  life   and   decorated   themselves   with   a   king ́s   title   in   Nippur  town  from  2189  BC  on,  the  so-­‐‑called  Gutian   kings.  Lifes  of  those  kings,  however,  were  short:  20   kings  reigned  80  years.  The  Sumerians,  by  and  by,   expelled  them  from  Southern  Sumer,  the   last,  in  2112   BC.

People  from  the  South:

The    old   Sumerian   enemy,   the    Elamites,   across   the  Persian  Gulf,  landed  with  boats  in  South  Sumer   [11,  lines  251-­‐‑259]:  “To  the  South,  the  Elamites,  like

an  onrushing  wave,  were  […]  To  the  South,  the   Elamites  stepped  in,  slaughtering  […]”  The  Elamites   came   in   organised   order   to   systematically   pilfer   Sumerian   towns,   capture   slaves,   women   and   domestic  animal  herds,  looting  everything  of  value,   especially  copper  and  bronze  metals,  and  carrying   them   by   boat   across   the   Gulf   to   Elam.   Fifty   years   passed,  and  after  Sumer ́s  recovery,  the  Sumerian   governor   Gudea   of   Lagash   successfully   sent   an   military  expedition  with  a  boat  fleet  over  to  Elam,   repatriating   looted   Sumerian   objects   from   the   Elamite  town  of  Anshan.

One  side  comment  should  be  made  as  well  to  the   Biblical  flood  of  Noah:  The  4.2  kiloyear  impact  event   should   not   be   confused   with   the    Sumerian   river   flood,   quote   [19]:   “The   archeologically   aEested   Sumerian   river   flood   in   Shuppurak   and   various   other  Sumerian  cities  […]  has  been  radiocarbon  dated   to  2900  BC”.  Therefore,  this  event  took  place  800   years  before  the  impact  event,  and  left  an  60  cm  thick

sediment  stratum,  positioned  below  the  2193  BC   impact  layer.

Concerning   the   buried   Akkad   town   site   and   town  features:  The  location  is  well  described  in  [15,   lines  40-­‐‑56]:  “Agade  […]  was  like  {where}  the  Tigris   flowing  into  the  sea  {Persian  Gulf}  […]  {and}  the   portals   of  its   city   opened  […]”.  As   approximation,  the   figure  5  in  [6],  shows  the  limit  of  the  marine  Gulf   estuary.   The   Sumerians   came   by   boats   down   the   rivers:   “{Akkad}   […]   made   Sumer   bring   […]   possessions  by  boat.”

Larger  sea-­‐‑going  vessels  “of  Meluhhans,  brought   wares  from  foreign  countries”  over  the  Persian  Gulf.   In  short  distance  to  Akkad,  lay  Elam  and  Subir,  its   traders  came  on  foot:  “Elam  and  Subir  loaded  goods   on  packassess”,  arriving  at  Akkad,  at  the  East  bank   of   the  Tigris.  We  add   the  proximity   of   the  major   impact   crater   Umm-­‐‑al-­‐‑Binni   and   can   put   Akkad ́s   location  to  31°15 ́50.78 ́ ́N  and  and  47°08 ́51.03 ́ ́E.

As  Akkad   was  built   on   top   of   a  hill   on   the   Eastern  bank  of  the  Tigris  river,  there  must  be  river   crossing  stations  located  on  the  opposite  river  bank.   The  downriver  station  is  boat  station  no.  2,  from   where  boats  were  pulled  upriver  by   slaves  with   ropes  on  a  towpath  to  the  crossing  station  no.  1.  The   river   curve   helped   that   boats   stayed   afloat   in   distance  to  the  river  bank.  We  may   assume  that   at   the  moment  of  the  impact,  there  were  boats  tied  up   at  stations.  Within  seconds,  boats  must  have  filled  up   with    burning   hot   pellets,    immediately   sinking   into   the  mud,  before  all  water  steamed  out  of  the  river   bed.   There   might   be   a   chance   that   they   remain   preserved  and  still  there  to  be  recovered.  As  Akkad   grew   and   more   labour   became   available,   the   opposite  riverside  was  fortified  by   a  wall  similar  to   the   Akkadian   town   wall.   The   shortest   distance   between  both  walls  was  crossed  with  a  river  bridge,   as  prolongation  of  the  river  quay  to  the  opposite   side.  The  view  of  Akkad  town  is  shown  in  figure  3.

To   this   point,   we   presented   historical   and   geological  evidence  for  the  cosmic  impact.  Left  to  do   is  the  climatological  footprint  analysis.  This  analysis   will  additionally  prove  the  occurrence  of  the  impact,   will   confirm   the   impact   date   and   will   prove    the

relation   between   cosmic   impact   and   immediately   ensuing  abrupt  climate  change.                                                                                           Another  side   aspect  should  be   mentioned:  Today,

two  cosmic  impact  data  bases  exist  and  some  modest   cosmic  impact  research  is  carried  out.  All  of  those   efforts,  however,  are  underfunded,  incomplete  and   disappointing.  As  proof  may  serve  other  hypotheses   entwining  the  4.2  kiloyear  impact  event. ” – http://www.maggysimms.co.uk/uploads/1/9/7/5/19752675/akkad_paper.pdf

Poet – priestess Enheduanna[edit]

Sumerian literature continued in rich development during the Akkadian period (a notable example being Enheduanna). Enheduanna, the “wife (Sumerian “dam” = high priestess) of Nanna [the Sumerian moon god] and daughter of Sargon”[49] of the temple of Sin at Ur, who lived ca. 2285–2250 BC, is the first poet in history whom we know by name. Her known works include hymns to the goddess Inanna, the Exaltation of Inanna and In-nin sa-gur-ra. A third work, the Temple Hymns, a collection of specific hymns, addresses the sacred temples and their occupants, the deity to whom they were consecrated. The works of this poetess are significant, because although they start out using the third person, they shift to the first person voice of the poet herself, and they mark a significant development in the use of cuneiform. As poetess, princess, and priestess, she was a personality who, according to William W Hallo, “set standards in all three of her roles for many succeeding centuries”[50] 

Enheduanna depicts Inanna as disciplining mankind as a goddess of battle. She thereby unites the warlike Akkadian Ishtar’s qualities to those of the gentler Sumerian goddess of love and fecundity. She likens Inanna to a great storm bird who swoops down on the lesser gods and sends them fluttering off like surprised bats. Then, in probably the most interesting part of the hymn, Enheduanna herself steps forward in the first person to recite her own past glories, establishing her credibility, and explaining her present plight. She has been banished as high priestess from the temple in the city of Ur and from Uruk and exiled to the steppe. She begs the moon god Nanna to intercede for her because the city of Uruk, under the ruler Lugalanne, has rebelled against Sargon. The rebel, Lugalanne, has even destroyed the temple Eanna, one of the greatest temples in the ancient world, and then made advances on his sister-in-law.[51]

 

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Enheduanna

 

http://thecriticalarchitect.com/2011/12/the-lilypad-city-a-big-floater/

Die nabye toekoms:   Alle mynwerkers het gestaak globally, en so fail die hele goud platinum en diamant sectors en olie bly die mees waardevolle resource. Die mense gaan mal en slaan orals net fracking systems in afrika op. Ten slotte  slaan die idiots ‘n ondergrondse aardplaat of iets (die navorsing moet dit nog mooi stel) en so ontplof oer vulkane regoor die afrika kontinent, dis nou oor n hele paar eras. In die tyd het die ice caps gesmelt-smelt en die oseane drasties gestyg, asook die temperature. So meeste van afrika is hoog genoeg en bly bo, die groot moondhede sink want na die myn collapse ens het hulle geen geld oorgehad om hulle stede te red nie en moes na afrika trek. So bou laer plekke soos suidafrika oftewel kaapstad damwalle om die stad te protect van die waterstygings en siedaar al kontinent wat oorbly is afrika _ the age of the neo african empire dawns…

(http://phatsionplayground.blogspot.com/2012/05/africa-in-vogue.html)

Cape town’s poor residents flee to live in the mountains (cape flats oorstroom) die ryk elite _ government en so in SA bou vir hulle n onderwaterstad in valsbaai en die cape town cbd is n holland agtige crowded urban area omring deur die berg en groot damwalle. Daar is ook n promenade waar die damwal stukstuk soos n akwarium lyk, glas mure ens.

SECRET SOCIETY IN PARLIAMENT PRECINCT
It’s 227 years old but few know about De Goedehoop masonic lodge

Governments rise and fall, but one thing remains constant in the precincts of Parliament in Cape Town: the 227-year-old masonic lodge. Few know that an old and venerable temple of the ancient and mysterious brotherhood of Freemasons exists in the parliamentary complex. But De Goedehoop Temple was built long before Parliament.

– http://home.worldonline.co.za/~grandlodgesa/170799.html

*A flood basalt is the result of a giant volcanic eruption or series of eruptions that coats large stretches of land or the ocean floor with basalt lava. Flood basalts have occurred on continental scales (large igneous provinces) in prehistory, creating great plateaus and mountain ranges. Flood basalts have erupted at random intervals throughout geological history and are clear evidence that the Earth undergoes periods of enhanced activity rather than being in a uniform steady state. Flood basalts on the ocean floor produce oceanic plateaus. – http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flood_basalt

*The African Plate is a tectonic plate which includes the continent of Africa, as well as oceanic crust which lies between the continent and various surrounding ocean ridges.

More research sites:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Akkadian_Empire

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mantle_plume

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oceanic_crust

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oceanic_basin

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mid-Atlantic_Ridge

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Epeiric_sea

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Continental_shelf

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lithosphere

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fold_(geology)

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kaapvaal_Craton

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Karoo-Ferrar

http://www.ernstversusencana.ca/this-insane-video-is-why-fracking-should-be-made-illegal-raw-louisiana-sinkhole-swallows-giant-trees-in-less-than-a-minute

 

 

 

 

Things/Places to Do/See in Cape Town

Liesbeek river canoe
http://peninsulapaddle.wordpress.com/route/liesbeek-river-to-the-sea/
Sewer tour
http://undertheculture.wordpress.com/tag/underground-tunnels-cape-town/

http://peninsulapaddle.files.wordpress.com/2013/05/peninsula-paddle-route-map-2014.pdf

Theewaterskloof dam

Places to go

 

Kwazulu Natal

Durban

 

http://www.ammazulupalace.com/pages/2566/contact-us

http://www.ushakamarineworld.co.za/

North West

 

http://www.sun-city-south-africa.com/

 

By Pilanesberg Game Reserve, west of Pretoria.

Western Cape

Oudtshoorn

http://www.cango-caves.co.za/

 

 

 

Gauteng

Soweto Theatre

Soweto Krag Torings

Joburg Tower

Mill Junction

Water tower on Northcliff hill, Johannesburg

The Johannesburg Water tower, which for many years dominated the Midrand skyline.

Pretoria

http://www.freedompark.co.za/

Dept of Arts + Culture

 

 

Sterkfontein

http://www.maropeng.co.za/

 

cradle of humankind

Limpopo

http://www.sahistory.org.za/topic/mapungubwe

Mpumalanga

Sudwala Caves

About 37 km north-west of Nelspruit in Mpumalanga South Africa, in the Mankelekele Mountains are the Sudwala Caves.

 

http://www.thesouthafricaguide.com/transvaal/south-africa-tourist-attractions-south-african-places-of-interest-sudwala-caves/

 

Northern Cape

Kimberley

http://www.solplaatje.org.za/explore_attractions.php

Northern Cape Provincial Legislature

The Big Hole and Kimberley Mine Museum

sutherland

https://www.skatelescope.org/location/africa/

Free State

Vaal Dam

Anglo Boer War Musuem

Eastern Cape

Red Location Musuem New Brighton township of Port Elizabeth

 

Noero Wolff Architects

 

Port Elizabeth

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prince_Alfred’s_Guard_Memorial

Prince Alfred's Guard Memorial at St Georges Park.jpg

 

 

 

 

 

http://mrmettdotcom3.files.wordpress.com/2013/07/mandelas-qunu.jpg

 

Upper Africa etc.

http://africanarchitecture.blogspot.com/

http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/364 The ruins of Great Zimbabwe

Namibe Angola

Namibia

http://www.getaway.co.za/travel-ideas/abondoned-sites-southern-africa/

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Future Karoo

s_c23_74453122 s_c27_74449986 s_c18_74453441 s_c05_74450000 s_c09_74453768 44-hd-masterpieces-of-matte-paintings-and--fantasy-scene-wallpapers-desert-tower--surreal-fantasy-landscape-76686 s_c01_74449979 s_c02_00000001 Labyrinth - pic via Philip Reeve for Dungeon World article african-palace pyramid-3 abandoned-theatre-namibe-angola-1 shali-egypt tomb-house-cairo-city-of-the-dead mos-espa-star-wars-onk-jemal-tunisia-3-630x354 Above-Below-Skyscraper-3 32377933.cms a2e18222-b569-11e3-af92-00144feabdc0.img 292626 Photoshop_Desert_roof_017298_ uldah desert_city_by_sebastianwagner-d62dwho Masdar_Institute-1_Exterior mechscape_desert_city_msw sci_fi_desert___test_site_by_tha_fire_dude-d4dvrvp-1 sci_fi_desert___test_site_by_tha_fire_dude-d4dvrvp thedesertlabs 26masdar-span-articleLarge abandoned-theatre-namibe-angola fallout ruins postapocalyptic fantasy art concept art cities 1600x1200 wallpaper_wallpaperswa.com_57 Fantasy-landscape-desert-city-bridge-and-504942 John-Carter-Mondo-Poster-e1331301370671 land6 tn-500_baitzwm6910030493 IDF-Urban-Warfare-training-center 635_The_Desert_City_of_Shibam_Yemen_2012_by_John_Anderse_635 499-apple-valley-j3313 Avdat-Negev-desert-cities-of-the-Incense-Route cm-choir-city-gobi-desert-mongolia incense-route-desert zwangsleitner_al_shuruq_01-830x622 zwangsleitner_new_cairo_08-830x622 04-13-sietch-nevada 1370828074-95e6d8146a5b85dd303a6c54feef9bad Above-Below-Skyscraper-2 City_of_desert_by_vofff konrad_1 shibam6 1004057sg 10304568_10152005304786459_7098957477265037893_n-1 10307369_10152073043026459_3119260421479256307_n afrikaburn2014-DSCF9254 NM_140502_AfrikaBurn2014_3293 stasie-kafee-2012a afrikaburn-1 922425_191022631049912_1908427721_o 943017_10152008978551501_1000365765_n Compression Afrikaburn_ Simon Max Bannister solace-2012c 9230ad17662f433e84f22990a38ac356 Afrika_Burn_-_Gabriela_Slegrova_2_640_427_80 Afrika_Burn_-_Gabriela_Slegrova_640_427_80 afrika-burn-art-unbranded-truth AfrikaBurn-2014-2 AfrikaBurn-2014-3 AfrikaBurn-2014-8 afrikaburn-aerial-shot AfrikaBurn Afrikaburn2_2013_gallo leadImage_leadimage m-1 sculptures-AfrikaBurn-2013-5 SD13Afrikaburn-583-667x441 SD13Afrikaburn2-247-667x441 AZA_Blog_desert_city_II_08http://inhabitat.com/underground-skyscraper-that-heals-the-scars-of-open-pit-mining/

http://www.urbanghostsmedia.com/category/africa-2/

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Masdar_City

http://www.ft.com/cms/s/2/3d4e9abc-af60-11e3-bea5-00144feab7de.html#axzz35Y1LtfFT

http://www.gizmodo.in/design/A-Gigantic-Walking-City-That-Farms-the-Desert-As-It-Moves/articleshow/32377924.cms

http://www.theatlantic.com/infocus/2013/08/a-lotus-in-the-desert-chinas-xiangshawan-resort/100575/